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developmental science: field of study devoted to understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespan

lifespan perspective: development is lifelong, multidimensional and multi-directional, highly plastic, and effected by many interacting forces

G. Stanley Hall: founder of child study movement, believed dev. was maturational process(genetically unfolds like flower), and used normative approach

normative approach: measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals, and age-related avg.are computed to represent typical development (used questionnaires, observation, parent interviews)

psychoanalytic perspective: how we resolve conflicts b/w biological drives + social expectations determines person's ability to learn, get along w/others, and cope w/anxiety

psychosexual theory: Freud emphasizes how parents manage their child's sexual + aggressive drives in 1st few years crucial for healthy personality development (psychsexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital)

psychosocial theory: Erikson based his theory off Freud's psychosexual theory- added that ego makes positive contribution to dev./acquiring attitudes/skills at each stage that make ind. active member of society

behaviorism: directly observable events focus of study (stimuli/responses)

John Watson: applied classical conditioning to children's behavior (can mold behavior by controlling stimulus-response associations)

B.F. Skinner: believed in operant conditioning theory (frequency of behavior can be increased by following it) w/reinforcers and decresd w/punishment

social learning theory: stresses the importance of cognition and emphasizes modeling, imitation, observational learning devised by Bandura

behavior modication: consists of procedures that combine conditioning + modeling to eliminate bad behavior/ increase good response

cognitive-developmental theory: Piaget believes children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate/explore their world (adaptation central/ conducts clinical interviews)

information processing: human mind viewed as symbol-manipulating system which information flows (uses flowcharts to map how individuals solve problems/complete tasks)

developmental cognitive neuroscience: interdisciplinary study- research relationship b/w change in brain and developing person's cognitive processing/behavior patterns

sensitive period: optimal time for certain capacities to emerge + ind. responsive to environmental influences

evolutionary developmental psychology: seeks to understand adaptive value of species-wide cog., emotional, and social competencies as change w/age

sociocultural theory: focus on culture transmission and importance of social interaction in acquiring ways of thinking/behaving of that culture

ecological systems theory: people develop within complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of surrounding environment (Bronfenner characterize as bioecological model(chronosystem): micro, meso, exo,macro)

naturalistic observation: observation in natural environment; type of systematic observation

structured observation: observation in lab where all participants have same conditions; type of systematic observation

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