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Arrow_left - Biology Chapter 6
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diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg
characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive
haploid male sex cells produced by meiosis
sexual reproduction
pattern of reproduction that involves the production and subsequent fusion of haploid sex cells
trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
from male reproductive organs to female reproductive organs of plants, usually within the same species
outward appearance of an organism, regardless of its genes
failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis; results in gametes with too many or too few chromosomes
type of cell division where one body cell produces four gametes, each containing half the number of chromosomes as a parent's body cell
law of segregation
Mendelian principle explaining that because each plant has two different alleles, it can produce two different types of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametes randomly pair to produce four combination of alleles
law of independent assortment
Mendelian principle stating that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
offspring formed by parents having different forms of a trait
when there are two identical alleles for a trait
homologous chromosome
paired chromosomes with genes for the same traits arranged in the same order
when there are two different alleles for a trait
passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
cell with one of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a haploid, or n, number of chromosomes
combination of genes in an organism
branch of biology that studies heredity
genetic recombination
major source of genetic variation among organisms caused by reassortment or crossing over during meiosis
male and female sex cells; sperm and eggs
fusion of male and female gametes
haploid female sex cell produced by meiosis
observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait
cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a diploid, or 2n, number of chromosomes
crossing over
exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids from homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis; results in new allele combinations
alternative forms of a gene for each variation of a trait of an organism