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Thyroid Gland: Target tissue: most Functions: Regulates metabolic rates and is needed for growth

Antidiuretic Hormone: a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland Target tissue: kidneys Functions: conserve water, less urine output

Oxytocin: A hormone that stimulates contractions during labour/labor, and then the production of milk. Target tissue: uterus Functions: Increase uterine contractions during labor, milk let down, pair bonding, positive feedback system

Thymus Glande: Target tissues: Immune System Functions: Promotes immune system development and function

Glucagon: A hormone, produced by the pancreas, that opposes the action of insulin by stimulating the production of sugar Target tissue: Liver Functions: regulates blood glucose levels between meals

Pancreas: A gland near the stomach which secretes a fluid to help with food digestion and also the hormone insulin which helps the body process glucose (or sugars). Target tissue: Liver, Skeletal muscles, and adipose tissue Functions: Regulates blood glucose

Gonads: Testes: Target tissue: most Functions: Aids in sperm and reproductive development Ovaries: Target tissue: most Functions: Involved in uterine and mammory gland development

Pineal Body: Target tissue: Hypothalamus Functions: Onset of puberty

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: Target tissue: Adrenal Cortex Functions: Increases secretion of cortisol and hydrocortisone

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone: Target tissue: Thyroid Gland Functions: Regulates thyroid gland secretions

Gonadotropins: Follicle stimulating hormone (Females): Target tissue: Follicles in ovaries Functions: Follicle maturation and estrogen secretion (Males): Target tissue: testes Functions: Sperm production

Prolactin: A peptide gonadotrophic hormone secreted by the pituitary gland; it stimulates growth of the mammary glands and lactation in females

Melanocyte: A cell in the skin that produces the pigment melanin.

Adrenal Gland: In mammals, either of a pair of complex endocrine glands, situated above each kidney, secreting hormones which control the heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism. Fight or flight response

Calcitonin: Target tissue: Bone Functions: Decrease rate of bone remodeling and prevents increase in blood calcium levels

Androgens: Target tissue: most; Functions: (Males) Secondary sexual characteristics; (Females) Sex drive

Inferior vena cava: The large vein which returns blood from the lower extremities, and the pelvic and abdominal organs, to the right atrium of the heart.

Coronary sinus: Drains blood from the myocardium

Right ventricle: Opens into pulmonary trunk

Pulmonary trunk: Splits into right and left ventricle pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary arteries: Carry blood away from heart to lungs

Systemic circuit: Carries blood from heart to body. Blood is oxygen rich

Left atrium: One of the chambers of the heart in humans and other mammals, receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins, and pumps it into the left ventricle.

Left ventricle: One of the four chambers of the heart of humans and other mammals, which receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it out through the aorta.

Aorta: The great artery which carries the blood from the left ventricle to all parts of the body except the lungs; the main trunk of the arterial system.

Pulmonary: Base of pulmonary trunk

Functions of blood: Transport of gases, Transport of processed molecules, Transport of regulatory chemicals, Regulation of pH and osmosis, Regulation of body temperature, Protection against foreign substances, Clot formation

Granulocytes: Contain granules and can be seen when stained

Agranular: Not granular; lacking granules

Sense: Ability to preceive stimuli

Spiral organ: In cochlea duct, contains hair cells

Growth hormone: Target tissue: Most; Functions: Stimulates growth of bones, muscles, and organs

Water soluble: Includes proteins, peptides, and amino acids

Lipid Soluble hormone: Includes steroids, and thyroid hormones

Functions of the Endocrine System: Controls homeostasis, Maintains water balance, Controls uterine contractions, Controls milk production, Regulates ions, Regulates metabolism and growth, Regulates heart rate, Monitors blood glucose levels, Aids the immune system, Reproductive functions

Functions of the heart: Regulates blood supply, Generates blood pressure, Routes blood, Ensures 1 way blood flow

Superior vens cava: Drains blood above diaphragm (head, neck, thorax, and upper limbs)

Right Atrium: Recieves blood from Superior vena cava, Inferior vena cava, and Coronary sinus

Atria: Upper portion of the heart, holding chambers

Ventricles of the heart: Lower portion of the heart, Pumping chambers

Pulmonary circuit: Carries blood from heart to lungs, Blood is oxygen poor

Optic disk: White spot medial to macula

Blind spot: No photoreceptors

Mechanoreceptors: Detect movement

Chemoreceptors: detect chemicals

Photoreceptors: Detect light

Thermoreceptors: Temperature changes

Nocireceptors: Pain

Merkels disk: Detect light touch and pressure

Hair follicle receptors: Detect light touch

Meissner corpuscle: Localizing tactile sensations

Ruffini Corpuscle: Pressure in skin

Pacinian Corpuscle: Tendons and joints

Conjunctiva: A clear mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelid and the exposed surface of the eyeball or sclera.

Lacrimal apparatus: Produces tears

Extrensic eye muscle: helps move eyeball

Static equilibrium: Evaluates position of head relative to gravity

Optic nerve: Leaves eye and exits orbit through optic foramen

Optic chiasm: The part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.

Optic tracts: Route of ganglion axons

Malleus: The small hammer-shaped bone of the middle ear. Bone attached to tympanic membrane

Fovea centralis: Center of macula; where light is focused when looking directly at an object

Anterior chamber of the eye: Located between cornea and lens. Filled with aqueous humor

Posterior chamber of the eye: Located behind Anterior, also contain aqueous humor

Vitreous chamber of the eye: Filled with vitreous humor and helps maintain pressure

Light refraction: Bending of light

Focal point: A focus; a point at which rays of light or other radiation converge. Object is inverted

Middle ear: The cavity in the temporal bone between the eardrum and the inner ear that contains the ossicles, and which conveys sound to the cochlea. Air filled chamber

Incus: A small anvil-shaped bone in the middle ear. Connects Malleus to Stapes

Stapes: A small stirrup-shaped bone of the middle ear. Located at the base of oval window

Sensory receptors: Sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuli by developing action potential

Sensation: A physical feeling or perception from something that comes into contact with the body; something sensed.

Vestibule: Inner ear, contains utricle ans saccule

Oval window: Seperates middle and inner ear

Dynamic equilibrium: Associated with semicircular canals and evaluates changes in direction and rate of head movement

Receptors: Over large part of body

Somatic: Provides info about body and environment

Visceral: Provide info about internal organs, pain and pressure

Inner ear: The portion of the ear located within the temporal bone which includes the semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea and is responsible for hearing and balance. Fluid filled chambers

Hair cells: In cochlea duct, attach to sensory neurons that when bent produce an action potential

Cochlea: The complex, spirally coiled, tapered cavity of the inner ear in which sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses.

Auditory tube: Opens into pharynx, Equalizes air pressure between outside air and middle ear

Macula: Small spot near center of retina

Retinal: One of several yellow or red carotenoid pigments formed from rhodopsin by the action of light; retinene

Opsin: Any of a group of light-sensitive proteins in the retina

Rhodopsin: A light-sensitive pigment in the rod cells of the retina; it consists of an opsin protein bound to the carotenoid retinal

Pigmented retina: Keeps light from reflecting back in eye

Sensory retina: Contains photoreceptors and interneurons

Taste: One of the sensations produced by the tongue in response to certain chemicals.

Cochlea duct: Filled with endolymph

Scala vestibuli: In cochlea, filled with perilymph

Scala tympani: In cochlea, filled with perilymph

Epicardium: outside surface of the heart

Myocardium: The middle of the three layers forming the wall of the heart.

Endocardium: A thin serous membrane that lines the interior of the heart.

Valves of the heart: Structures that insure 1 way blood flow

Atrioventricular valves: Between atria and ventricles

Tricuspid Valve: A heart valve with three cusps which prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium.

Bicusped valve: Left AV valve, 2 cusps

Chordae tendineal: Attached to Atrioventricular valve flasps, support valves

Semilunar Valves: pocket like cusps

Aortic: Base of aorta

Coronary arteries: Supply blood to the heart wall; originate from base of aorta

Left coronary artery: Supply blood to anterior heart wall and left ventricle

Right coronary artery: Supply blood to the right ventricle

Cardiac Veins: Drain blood from the cardiac muscle

Nervous regulation: Mechanism of autonomic nervous system which regulates heart function; keeps heart rate and stroke volume in normal range

Chemical regulation: Chemicals can affect heart rate and volume

Intracellular: Produce in one part of a cell and move to another part of same cell

Intercellular: Released from one cell and bind to receptors on another cell

Pericarditis: Inflammation of the pericardium, the membrane that surrounds the heart.

Cardiac tamponade: a condition in which fluid accumulates in the pericardium and compress heart

Fibrillation: The rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of the muscle fibers of the heart.

Arrhythmia: An irregular heartbeat.

Tachycardia: A rapid resting heart rate, especially one above 100 beats per minute.

Bradycardia: The condition of having a slow heartbeat, defined as under 60 beats per minute for an adult.

Thrombus: Blood clot blocks coronary blood vessels causes heart attack

Infarct: Area that dies from lack of oxygen

Atherosclerosis: The clogging or hardening of arteries or blood vessels caused by plaques (accumulations of fatty deposits, usually cholesterol).

Angina pectoris: Chest pain resulting from lack of oxygen to the heart tissue

Angioplasty: The mechanical widening of a narrowed or totally obstructed blood vessel generally caused by atheroma.

Stent: Structures inserted to keep vessels open

Bypass: Procedure reroutes blood away from blocked arteries

Functions of Leukocytes: Fight infections; Remove dead cells and debris by phagocytosis

Hematopiesis: Process of blood cell formation

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