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All terms in this list:

acid rain: contains quantities of carbonic, nitric and sulfuric acids

atomic (proton) number (Z): the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Avogadro constant (L): 6.022 x 10^23 particles per mole

catalytic cracking: occurs when the energy required for bond breaking in hydrocarbons is provided by heat, in the presence of a catalyst

chain isomers: structural isomers that occur when there are two or more ways of arranging the carbon skeleton of a molecule

co-ordinate bond: a covalent bond formed when the pair of electrons originate from one atom

covalent bond: a type of chemical bond where two atoms are connected to each other by the sharing of two or more electrons

cracking: occurs when large alkanes are broken into smaller molecules

displayed formula: shows all the bonds present in a molecule

electronegativity: the power of an atom to attract the shared electrons in a covalent bond

empirical formula: the simplest ratio of atoms of each element in a compound

energy levels: the specific values of energy that an electron may have in an atom

enthalpy change (ΔH): the amount of heat energy released or absorbed when a chemical or physical change occurs at constant pressure

enthalpy of fusion: the enthalpy required to change one mole of a solid into a liquid

enthalpy of vapourisation: the enthalpy required to change one mole of a liquid into a gas

first ionisation energy: the enthalpy change for the removal of one mole of electrons from one mole of atoms in the gas phase

functional group: an atom or group of atoms which, when present in different molecules, causes them to have similar chemical properties

functional group isomers: structural group isomers which contain different functional groups

greeenhouse gases: gases in the atmosphere which absorb infra-red radiation (e.g. water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane)

homologous series: a family of organic molecules which all contain the same functional group but have an increasing number of carbon atoms

hydrogen bonding: an intermolecular force between the lone pair on an electronegative atom (N, O or F) and a hydrogen atom bonded to such an electronegative atom

ideal gas: one that obeys the ideal gas equation PV=nRT

ionic bond: the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions

ionic crystal: a lattice of positive and negative ions bound together by electrostatic attractions

ion: an atom or group of atoms which has gained or lost one or more electrons, giving it a positive or negative charge

isomers: molecules which have the same chemical formula but in which the atoms are arranged differently

isotopes: atoms of the same element with the same atomic number but different mass numbers

macromolecular (giant) crystal: a large, covalently-bonded lattice structure

macromolecule: a large molecule

mass number (A): the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of one atom of the element

metallic bonding: electrostatic attraction between metal ions and delocalised electrons

metallic crystal: a lattice of metal ions surrounded by delocalised electrons

molecular formula: the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule

neutral atoms: contain an equal number of positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons

orbitals: volumes in space around the nucleus within which electrons are most likely to to be found

atom economy: a measure of how much of a desired product in a reaction is formed from the reactants

polarity: the displacement of electron density (formation of an electric dipole) in a covalent bond, or in a molecule, due to a difference in electronegativity

position isomers: structural isomers which have the same carbon skeleton and the same functional group but in which the functional group is joined at different places on the carbon skeleton

saturated hydrocarbons: contain carbon-carbon single bonds as well as carbon-hydrogen bonds

square planar: the spatial arrangement of a central atom surrounded by four atoms situated at the corners of a square

stereoisomerism: occurs when molecules with the same structural formula have the bonds arranged differently in space

structural formula: shows the unique arrangement of atoms in a molecule in a simplified form without showing all the bonds

structural isomers: compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures

structural isomerism: occurs when the component atoms are arranged differently in molecules having the same molecular formula

thermal cracking: occurs when the energy required for bond breaking in hydrocarbons is provided by heat alone

relative atomic mass: the weighted average mass of an atom of an element, taking into account its naturally occurring isomers, relative to 1/12th the relative atomic mass of an atom of carbon-12

relative molecular mass: the mass of that molecule compared to 1/12th the relative atomic mass of an atom of carbon-12

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