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Cold War: intense economic, political, military, and ideological rivalry between nations, short of military conflict; sustained hostile political policies and an atmosphere of strain between opposed countries
OR, a war with no fighting!
US/SU Cold War 1945-

Manhattan Project: Manhattan Project: this is what the U.S. called the secret plan to build the atomic bomb

Hisroshime and Nagasaki: U.S. dropped 1st bomb on August 6, 1945
1. Hiroshima
2. 75,000 killed immediately
3. Thousands more died of radiation
G. U.S. dropped 2nd bomb on August 14, 1945
1. Nagasaki

Capitalism: Capitalism: economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive and private ownership of the means of production

Communism: communism: a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state

Harry S. Truman: A. Took over after FDR died
B. Important decisions
1. Drop atomic bombs
2. United Nations

United Nations: 1st met April 12, 1944 (50 nations) in San Francisco, California
Similar to League of Nations after WWI
US joins the UN
Goal: Prevent another World War!
Collective security: an attack on one is an attack on all

Joseph Stalin: A Soviet political leader of the twentieth century. He ruled the Soviet UnionA Soviet political leader of the twentieth century. He ruled the Soviet Union, often with extreme brutality, from the death of LeninA Soviet political leader of the twentieth cen

Arms Race: Arms race between US/SU
1. occurred throughout Cold War
2. guarantee security
3. the two sides competed with each other to make the most and best weapons for the next 50 years

Truman Doctrine: the policy for the United States to provide military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey and, by extension, to any country threatened by Communism or any totalitarian ideology

Containment: Containment: U.S. wanted to contain communism--don’t let it spread

Iron Curtain: Iron Curtain: used by Winston Churchill in 1946 to describe the line of demarcation between Western Europe and the Soviet zone of influence

Berlin Blockade: As Marshall Plan helped, US/SU relations got worse
US, France, and GB: want strong Germany
SU felt threatened
SU put a blockade around W. Berlin
allowed nothing in; people were trapped

Marshall Plan: Marshall Plan!: a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II

Mao Z: End of 1949 = China becomes Communist
Communist leader is Mao Zedong.

NATO: NATO: an military alliance of twenty-eight North American and European countries. The role of the organization is to safeguard the freedom and security of its member countries by political and military means.

Warsaw Pact: Warsaw Pact: an organization formed 1955 comprising Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the U.S.S.R., for collective defense under a joint military command

2nd Red Scare: The second red scare—fear of communism

Joseph McCarthy: Joseph McCarthy--R-Wisconsin
1. Accused many in US gov. of bei ng Communist
2. BIG LIST--Feb. 1950
3. many feared him

Korean War: A conflict that lasted from 1950 to 1953 between North Korea, aided by China, and South Korea, aided by United Nations forces consisting primarily of U.S. troops.

General Douglas MacArthur: man in charge of United States troops during the Korean War

Sputnik: Any of a series of Soviet satellites sent into Earth orbit, especially the first, launched October 4, 1957

NASA: the federal agency that institutes and administers the civilian programs of the U.S. government that deal with aeronautical research and the development of launch vehicles and spacecraft

Yuri Gagarin: a man from the Soviet Union, he was the 1st person put into space in 1961

John Glenn: a man from the United States, he was the 1st person to orbit the Earth in 1962

Apollo 11: the moon landing mission

Great Debates: 4 televised debates between John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon before the election of 1960

Bay of Pigs: unsuccessful attempt by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro

Nikita Khrushchev: Soviet leader during the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis

Berlin Wall: built to separate East and West Berlin

Cuban Missile Crisis: A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest” periods of the cold war. The Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev, placed Soviet military missiles in Cuba, which had

Lee Harvey Oswald: man who shot President Kennedy

Warren Commission: group assigned to investigate the assassination of President Kennedy

Vietnam War: a conflict, starting in 1954 and ending in 1975, between South Vietnam (later aided by the U.S., South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, Thailand, and New Zealand) and the Vietcong and North Vietnam

Indochina: Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia

Ho Chi Minh: Communist leader of North Vietnam

Tet Offensive: a massive attack by the North Vietnamese on a huge national holiday in 1968

Mikhail Gorbachev: Leader of S.U. when it collapsed.

Glastnost: New policy of openness, freedom of speech and to criticize the government.

Perestroika: Changing the economy, People could ow own land and factories.

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