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Hydroxl: Structure: -OH. Naming: Alcohols (suffix -ol). Properties: Polar, hydrophilic.

Carbonyl: Structure: C=O Naming: Ketone if carbonyl is within a carbon skeleton; aldehyde if the carbonyl is at the end of the skeleton. Properties: A ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomers with different properties.

Carboxyl: -COOH; characteristic of carboxylic acids. Has acidic properties because it is a source of hydrogen ions. The covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar that H+ ions tend to dissociate reversibly. In cells it is found in the ionic form which is

Amino: -NH2; Naming: amines. Properties: acts as a base; ionized with a charge 1+ under cellular conditions.

Sulfhydryl: The univalent radical -SH that is the sulfur analogue of hydroxyl and constitutes the thiol group. Two sulfhydryls can interact to help stabilize a protein structure.

Phosphate: One P bonded to four O atoms. Two O atoms carry 1- charge. One O atom bonded to skeleton. Ionized form (-OPO_3^2-) of (-OPO_3H_2). Naming: organic phosphates. Properties: makes the molecule an anion. Can transfer energy between org. molecules.

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