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All terms in this list:

azot/o: nitrogenous waste

bacteri/o: bacteria

cyst/o: bladder, pouch

glumerul/o: glomerulus

glycos/o: sugar, glucose

keton/o: ketones

lith/o: stone

meat/o: meatus

nephr/o: kidney

noct/i: night

olig/o: scanty

protein/o: protein

pyel/o: renal pelvis

ren/o: kidney

ureter: ureter

urethr/o: urethra

urin/o: urine

ur/o: urine

genitourinary system: GU term used to describe urinary system

nephron: The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney, which filters the blood in order to regulate chemical concentrations, and thereby produces urine.

uremia: Blood poisoning resulting from the retention of waste products usually excreted as urine.

calyx: Collective term for the sepals of a flower, i.e. the outermost whorl of flower parts, when this is not the same in appearance as the next such whorl (the corolla).

cortex: The tissue of a stem or root that lies inward from the epidermis, but exterior to the vascular tissue.

hilum: The eye of a bean or other seed; the mark or scar at the point of attachment of an ovule or seed to its base or support.

medulla: The soft inner part of something, especially the pith of a fruit.

renal artery: delivers blood full of waste products to the kidney

renal vein: returns clean blood from kidney to general circulation

retroperitoneal: Behind the peritoneum

Bowman's capsule: another term for glomerular capsule

glomerular capsule: double walled cuplike structure that encases a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus

micturition: urination

voiding: urination

rugae: folds of mucus membrane that allow for streching

electrolyte: any of the various ions (such as sodium or chloride) that regulate the electric charge on cells and the flow of water across their membranes

homeostasis: The ability of a system or living organism to adjust its internal environment to maintain a stable equilibrium; such as the ability of warm-blooded animals to maintain a constant temperature.

albumin: A class of monomeric proteins that are soluble in water, and are coagulated by heat; they occur in egg white, milk etc; they function as carrier protein for steroids, fatty acids, and thyroid hormones and play a role in stabilizing extracellular fluid vol

urinalysis: The comprehensive analysis of urine.

reabsorption: The subsequent absorption of a secreted substance

peritubular capillaries: capillary bed surrounding the renal tubules where most of the water and electrolytes are reabsorbed after filtration.

an-: without

anti-: against

dys-: abnormal, difficult

extra-: outside of

hydro-: water

intra-: within

poly-: many

retro-: backward

-uria: urine condition

-tripsy: surgical crushing

-tic: pertaining to

-stenosis: narrowing

-scopy: process of visually examining

-scope: instrument to visually examine

-sclerosis: hardening

-rrhagia: abnormal flow condition

-ptosis: drooping

-plasty: surgical repair

-pexy: surgical fixation

-pathy: disease

-lithiasis: condition of stones

-logist: one who studies

-lysis: to destroy

-malacia: softening

-megaly: enlarged

-meter: instrument to measure

-oma: tumor

-ory: pertaining to

-osis: abnormal condition

-ostomy: create a new opening

-otomy: cutting into

-ous: pertaining to

-al: pertaining to

-algia: pain

-ar: pertaining to

-ary: pertaining to

-cele: protrusion

-eal: pertaining to

-ectasis: dilated

-ectomy: surgical removal

-emia: blood condition

-genic: produced by

-gram: record

-graphy: process of recording

-ic: pertaining to

-itis: inflammation

-lith: stone

uter/o: uterus

ureter/o: ureter

nephrology: The branch of medicine that deals with the function and diseases of the kidneys.

urology: The surgical specialty of medicine that treats disorders of the urinary tract and the urogenital system.

anuria: A condition in which the kidneys do not produce urine

azotemia: the accumulation in the blood of nitrogen-bearing waste products (such as urea) that are usually excreted in the urine

bacteriuria: presence of bacteria in the urine

calculus: stone formed within an organ by an accumulation of mineral salts

cystalgia: urinary bladder pain

diuresis: excessive urination

cystorrhagia: profuse bleeding from the urinary bladder

cystolith: bladder stone

glycosuria: The presence of sugars (especially glucose) in the blood, often as a result of diabetes mellitus

hematuria: The presence of blood in the urine

oliguria: A decreased production in the volume of urine.

polyuria: The production of an abnormally large amount of urine; one symptom of diabetes

nocturia: A frequent need to arise during the night in order to urinate.

nephromegaly: The process whereby a kidney or both kidneys become enlarged.

nephromalacia: kidney is abnormally soft

nephrolith: A kidney stone.

ketonuria: A medical condition in which ketone bodies are present in the urine.

dysuria: difficult or painful discharge of urine

enuresis: nightly urinary incontinence

nephritis: Inflammation of the kidney.

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