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Photosynthesis: The process by which plants and other photoautotrophs generate carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy in chloroplasts.

Cellular Respiration: The 3 step process that turns glucose into 32 ATP

Glucose: A simple monosaccharide (sugar) with a molecular formula of C6H12O6; it is a principle source of energy for cellular metabolism.

ATP: adenosine triphosphate; this is used to power some cellular processes

Carbon Dioxide: The normal oxide of carbon, CO₂; a colorless, odorless gas formed during respiration and combustion and consumed by plants during photosynthesis.

Water: H2O; a product of photosynthesis that is need for all living things

Oxygen: a gas produced by photosynthesis

Thylakoid: a folded membrane within plant chloroplasts from which grana are made, used in photosynthesis

Granum: a stacklike structure in plant chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis

Chlorophyll: Any of a group of green pigments that are found in the chloroplasts of plants and in other photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria

Stroma: the tissue structure of an organ, etc., that serves to support it; the rest of the space within the chloroplast

Light-Dependent Reaction: 1st step of photosynthesis; the process of capturing the sun's energy

Calvin Cycle: 2nd step of photosynthesis; this is the process of creating glucose

Glycolysis: The cellular degradation of the simple sugar glucose to yield pyruvic acid, and ATP as an energy source.

Krebs cycle: A series of enzymatic reactions that occurs in all aerobic organisms; it involves the oxidative metabolism of acetyl units, and serves as the main source of cellular energy.

Oxidative Phosphorylation: final step of respiration; this is when 32 ATP is created from the glucose that was originally started with

Electron Transport Proteins: Proteins embedded in the internal membrane of the mitochondria that makes ATP.

Autotrophs: organisms capable of making their own food

Photoautotrophs: uses sun energy to make organic compounds from light

Chemoautotrophs: uses chemical energy to make organic compounds from chemical energy contained in sulfide or methane

Photosystem: Either of two biochemical systems, active in chloroplasts, that are part of photosynthesis

Electron Transport System: sequence of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons

Carbon Fixation: any process, such as photosynthesis, whereby atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted into organic compounds

Heterotrophs: must take energy from outside sources; cannot make their own food

Aerobic Cellular Respiration: uses oxygen

Anaerobic Cellular Respiration: does not use oxygen

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