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Hydrogen bond: a weak electrostatic attraction between one electronegative atom ( such as O or N) and a H atom covalently linked to a second electronegative atom.

Hydrophilic: Polar or charged; describes molecules or groups that associate with (dissolve easily in) water.

Hydrophobic: nonpolar; describes molecules or groups that are insoluble in water.

Hydrophobic interactions: he association of nonpolar groups or compounds with each other in aqueous systems, driven by the tendency of the surrounding water molecules to seek their most stable (disordered) state.

Hydrolysis: Cleavage of a bond, such as an anhydride or peptide bond, by the addition of the elements of water, yielding two or more products.

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: an equation realting the pH, the pKa, and the ratio of the concentrations of proton-acceptor (A-) and proton donor species (HA) in a solution: pH=pka+log(A/HA).

Amphipathic: containing both polar and nonpolar domains.

Acidosis: a metabolic condition in which the capacity of the body to buffer H+ is diminished; usually accompanied by decreased blood pH.

Acid dissociation constant: the dissociation constant of an acid, describing its dissociation into its conjugate base and proton.

Alkalosis: a metabolic condition in which the capacity of the body to buffer OH- is diminished; usually accompanied by an increase in blood pH.

Bond energy: the energy required to break a bond.

Buffer: a system capable of resisting changes in pH, consisting of a conjugate acid-base pair in which the ration of proton acceptor to proton donor is near unity.

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