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polymer: A long molecule consisting of a chain of many repeating units. A polymer is formed by polymerization, the joining of many monomer molecules.

monomer: A relatively small molecule which can be covalently bonded to other monomers to form a polymer.

condensation reaction: When two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through a loss of a water molecule.

hydrolysis: A chemical process of decomposition involving the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion of water.

carbohydrate: A sugar, starch, or cellulose that is a food source of energy for an animal or plant; a saccharide.

monosaccharide: A simple sugar such as glucose, fructose or deoxyribose that has a single ring. (glucose C6H12O6)

disaccharide: Any sugar, such as sucrose, maltose and lactose, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkage.

glysocidic linkage: A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.

polysaccharides: macromolecules, serves as storage and structure.

starch: A storage polysaccharide of plants. Plants store starch as granules within cellular structures called plastids, including chloroplasts. (a linkages)

glycogen: A storage polysaccharide of animals.

cellulose: A complex carbohydrate that forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants and is important in the manufacture of numerous products, such as paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and explosives. (B linkages)

chitin: A complex polysaccharide, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, found in the exoskeletons of arthropods and in the cell walls of fungi.

lipid: Fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides. Lipids are characterized by being insoluble in water. They are, however, soluble in nonpolar organic solvents.

fat: made from glycerol and fatty acids

fatty acid: has a long carbon skeleton; one end there is a carboxyl group which gives the name acid. Nonpolar C-H bonds make it hydrophobic.

triacylglycerol: three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.

saturated fatty acid: a fatty acid, such as stearic acid, that contains no carbon to carbon double bonds

unsaturated fatty acid: A fatty acid, such as oleic acid, that contains one carbon to carbon double bond.

phospholipid: any lipid, such as lecithin or cephalin, consisting of a diglyceride combined with a phosphate group and a simple organic molecule such as choline or ethanolamine; they are important constituents of biological membranes

steroid: Carbon skeleton of four fused rings. They are lipids, and occur naturally as sterols, bile acids, adrenal and sex hormones, and some vitamins; many drugs are synthetic steroids.

cholesterol: A sterol lipid synthesized by the liver and transported in the bloodstream to the membranes of all animal cells; it plays a central role in many biochemical processes and, as a lipoprotein that coats the walls of blood vessels, is associated with cardiova

polypeptide: Polymer of amino acids joined via peptide bonds.

protein: A large, complex molecule composed of one or more long chains of amino acids, in which each chain is held together by peptide bonds.

amino acid: Any organic compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic acid functional group.

peptide bond: An amide bond formed between the amino and carboxyl functional groups of separate amino acids

primary structure: the linear sequence of amino acids covalently linked by peptide bonds to form a single polypeptide chain

secondary structure: The general three-dimensional structure of a biopolymer such as DNA or a protein. (a helix; b pleated sheets)

tertiary structure: proteins folds through hydrophobic interaction, disulfide bridges, ionic bond, hydrogen bond, van der waals interaction

quaternary structure: overall protein structure that results from an aggregation of polypeptide subunits.

denaturation: The change of folding structure of a protein (and thus of physical properties) caused by heating, changes in pH, or exposure to certain chemicals.

chaperone: A protein that assists the non-covalent folding/unfolding and the assembly/disassembly of other macromolecular structures, but does not occur in these structures when the latter are performing their normal biological functions.

nucleic acid: Any acidic, chainlike biological macromolecule consisting of multiply repeat units of phosphoric acid, sugar and purine and pyrimidine bases; they are involved in the preservation, replication and expression of hereditary information in every living cell

deoxyribonucleic acid: A nucleic acid found in all living things (and some non-living, see virus); consists of a polymer formed from nucleotides which are shaped into a double helix; it is associated with the transmission of genetic information.

ribonucleic acid: A derivative of DNA having ribose in place of deoxyribose, and uracil in place of thymine; its primary function is in the transcription of genetic material and subsequent synthesis of protein.

pyrimidine: A six-membered ring carbon and nitrogen atoms. (cytosine, thymine, uracil)

purine: larger, with a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. (adenine, guanine)

polynucleotide: A polymeric macromolecule composed of many nucleotides; examples include DNA and RNA

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