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The Cell Theory: All living things are composed of one or more cells, cells are the basic unit of structure of all living things, and all presently existing cells arose from previously existing cells.

Unicellular: An organism that is composed of one cell and all of life’s activities occur within that single cell

Multicellular: An organism that has many cells; each cell carries on most of the major functions of life.

Nucleus: Organelle that contains the chromosomes which are composed of DNA ; functions in the genetic control of the cell.

Mitochondria: The sites of cellular respiration, a process which supplies the cell with energy.

Chloroplasts: Found only in plant cells; Contains the green pigment, chlorophyll

Chlorophyll: Absorbs energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar through the process of photosynthesis

Lysosomes: Contains chemicals called enzymes necessary for digesting certain materials in the cell

Vacuole: store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates; vacuoles in animal cells (if they are present) are much smaller than those in plant cells.

Ribosomes: The sites of protein synthesis; Some are located on the ER, others are found in the cytoplasm

Endoplasmic Reticulum: A complex, extensive network that transports materials throughout the inside of a cell.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Has ribosomes attached to the surface; is "ribosome-studded."

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Has no attached ribosomes.

Golgi Apparatus: Modifies, collects, packages, and distributes molecules within the cell or outside the cell.

Cilia: Short hair-like projections responsible for the movement of animal cells or protists.

Flagella: Long whip-like projections responsible for the movement of some animal cells, bacteria, or protists.

Cell Membrane: The cell structure that encloses the cell and regulates the passage of materials between the cell and its environment; The cell membrane also aids in protection and support of the cell.

Nuclear Membrane: The membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell and regulates the passage of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Cell Wall: The cell structure that surrounds the cell membrane for protection and support in plant cells, bacteria, fungi, and some protists, and allows for specific substances to pass in and out of the cell.

Cytoplasm: The semi-fluid material inside the cell containing molecules and the organelles, exclusive of the nucleus; is bound by the cell membrane.

Organelle: A cell structure that performs a specialized function within a eukaryotic cell.

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