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All terms in this list:

atom: The smallest possible unit of substance.

ion: An atom or group of atoms with an electrical charge such as the sodium and chlorine atoms in a salt solution. Since some electrons are shared between two atoms, the charge of a nucleus is not equal to the charge of electrons.

anion: An negatively charged ion -- opposed to cation. The number of electrons exceeds the number of protons in the nucleus.

cation: A positively charged ion; -- opposed to anion. The number of protons in the nucleus is bigger than the number of electrons.

periodic table: A tabular chart of the chemical elements according to their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties are in the same column.

metal: Any of a number of chemical elements in the periodic table that form a metallic bond with other metal atoms; generally shiny, somewhat malleable and hard, often a conductor of heat and electricity.

metallic bond: a chemical bond in which mobile electrons are shared over many nuclei; this leads to electrical conduction

alkali metal: Any of the soft, light, reactive metals of Group 1 of the periodic table; lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium.

noble gas: Any of the elements of group 18 of the periodic table, being monatomic and (with very limited exceptions) inert (chemically inactive).

noble gases list: Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon

electron: The subatomic particle having a negative charge and orbiting the nucleus; its ability to be shared by two or more atoms allows chemical bonding of atoms in a molecule, forming a chemical compound.

base: A base in chemistry is a substance that can accept hydrogen ions (protons) or more generally, donate a pair of valence electrons. The resulting compound may consist of an ion of a metal (Me+) and a hydroxyl group OH-. Sodium hydroxide is an example - NaOH

alkali: One of a class of caustic bases, such as soda, potash, ammonia, and lithia, soluble in alcohol and water. Colors litmus paper blue. NaOH, KOH, LiOH, NH4OH.

acid: Water-soluble compounds, having sour taste, that turn blue litmus red, and react with some metals to liberate hydrogen, and with bases to form salts. Consists of one of or more hydrogen cations bonded with one or more anions. HCl or H+Cl- -- hydrochloric

salt: A compound formed from the reaction of an acid with a base, where a positive ion replaces a hydrogen of the acid. HCl + NaOH → H2O + NaCl

oxygen: A chemical element (symbol O) with an atomic number of 8 and relative atomic mass of 15.9994. Also, Molecular oxygen (O2), a colorless, odorless gas at room temperature.

oxidation: Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion. Oxygen is a very common oxidizer.

reduction: Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion.

redox: a reversible chemical reaction in which one reaction is an oxidation and the reverse is a reduction. Fe + CuSO4 → FeSO4 + Cu (iron is oxidized, and copper is reduced (restored)

chemical reaction: A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

chemical equation: a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction; reactants are represented on the left, and products on the right

endothermic chemical reaction: A chemical reaction that makes use of externally supplied energy to run. Example: photosynthesis (production of sugar and oxygen from CO2 in chlorophyll fueled by the energy of sunlight 6CO2 + H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2

exothermic reaction: A chemical reaction which is accompanied with a release of energy (heat, light, electricity etc) example is burning fuels like coal C + O2 = CO2

Symbol for iron: Fe

Symbol for copper: Cu

Symbol for silver: Ag (argentum)

Symbol for lead: Pb (plumbum)

Symbol for tin: St (stannum)

Symbol for gold: Au (aurum)

Symbol for sodium: Na (natrium)

Symbol for potassium: K (kalium)

Symbol for sulfur: S

Symbol for aluminum: Al (aluminium)

Symbol for nickel: Ni

Symbol for mercury: Hg (hydrargirum)

Symbol for nitrogen: N

Symbol for carbon: C

Symbol for phosphorus: P

Simbol for silicon: Si

Symbol for magnezium: Mg

Symbol for manganese: Mn

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