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Amniocentesis: -prenatal diagnosis method (most widely used technique) -hollow needle inserted through abdominal wall to obtain sample of fluid in uterus. cells examined for genetic defects. can be performed by the 14th week after conception, small risk of miscarriage

autosomes: 22 pair of chromosomes that are NOT sex chromosomes

canalization: traits that follow a genetically determined growth plan, requires extreme change in environment to alter, promotes survival

carrier: does not exhibit recessive gene but can transmit to offspring

chorionic villi sampling: -prenatal diagnostic method -can be used if results are desired or needed very early in pregnancy -thin tube is inserted into uterus through vagina, or hollow needle inserted though abdominal wall -small plug of tissue is removed from end of 1 or more ch

chromosomes: store & transmit genetic information (46 total)

total pairs of chromosomes? (specify): -23 pairs all together -22 autosomal pairs -1 sex pair

collectivist societies: -people define themselves as part of a group & stress group goals over individual

collectivist societies value:: interdependent self, which stresses social harmony, obligations and responsibility to others, & collaborative endeavors

concordance rate: the percent of time twins both show a given genetic trait in genetic studies. -ranges from 0-100%

cystic fibrosis: -recessive disease -lungs, liver, & pancreas secrete large amounts of thick mucus, leading to breathing & digestive difficulties

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): substance in which genes & chromosomes are made

dominant-recessive inheritance: a pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one allele is apparent

Down Syndrome: an autosomal recessive disorder, defect from DNA mutation, trisomy, X-linked disorder

epigeneisis: development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity & all levels of the environment

extended family household: Nuclear plus other relatives of one or both spouses (live with family or not); 3 or more generations

gametes: -sex cells (sperm & ova) -no 2 are alike -sex cell process

gene: segment of DNA located along the chromosomes

genetic counseling: a communication process designed to help couples asses their changes of giving birth to a baby with a hereditary disorder & choose the best course of action in view of risks & family goals

genetic imprinting: chemical marker that activates either father's or mother's gene

genetic-environmental correlation: our genes influence the environment in which we are exposed -passive, evocative, active, niche-picking

genotype: genetic makeup of an individual

hemophilia: -recessive -blood fails to clot normally; can lead to severe internal bleeding & tissue damage

heritability estimate: -Portion of individual differences attributable to genetics -Ranges from 0 to 1.00

heterozygous: alleles differ

homozygous: two alleles are alike

incomplete dominance: a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles are expressed, resulting in a combined trait, or one that is intermediate between the two

individualistic societies: people think of themselves as separate entities & are largely concerned with their own personal needs

individualistic societies values: emphasizes personal exploration, discovery, & achievement & individual choice in relationships

ecological systems theory: -Brofenbrenner -views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment

kinship studies: compare the characteristics of family members

Klinefelter Syndrome (XXY): -abnormality of the sex chromosome -inherit extra X chromosome -intellectual problems (verbal disabilities, reading, vocabulary)

meiosis: cell division in which gametes (sperm&ova) are formed, which halves # of chromosomes normally present in body cells

mitosis: cell duplication (exact copy)

mutation: Sudden, permanent change in DNA segment

niche-picking: the tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity (active correlation)

phenotype: physical/observable characteristics

Phenylketonuria (PKU): -most frequently occurring recessive disorders -affects the way the body breaks down proteins contained in many foods -causes severe nervous system damage in the 1st yr of life

polygenic inheritance: Many genes combine to influence a trait

prenatal diagnostic methods: medical procedures that permit detection of problems before birth

public policies: laws & government programs designed to prove current conditions

range of reaction: each person's unique, genetically determined response to the environment

sex chromosomes: -23rd pair of chromosomes -Determines sex -XX = female, XY = male

Sickle Cell Anemia: -incomplete dominance -heterozygous condition -abnormal sickling of red blood cells causes oxygen deprivation, pain, swelling, & tissue damage

socioeconomic status (SES): a measure of an individual's or a family's social position & economic well-being that combines 3 related, but not completely overlapping variables: 1.yrs. of education 2.job presage & skills required 3.income

subculture: groups of people with beliefs & customs that differ from those of the larger culture

Turner Syndrome (XO): -sex chromosome disorder -intellectual problems -trouble with spatial relationships (drawing pictures, telling left & right, following travel directions, noticing change of facial expressions)

ultrasound: -prenatal diagnostic method -highfrequency sound waves beamed at uterus & reflection translates into a picture on screen & reveals size, shape, & placement of fetus

x-linked inheritance: a pattern of inheritance in which a recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome, so males are more likely to be affected

zygote: sperm & ovum united at conception

2 basic foundations of development: -heredity -environment

development: a series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture over a lifespan

heredity: nature

environment: nurture

karotype: found in each body cell (23 pair)

allele: each of 2 or more forms of a gene located at the same place on corresponding pairs of chromosomes (one inherited from from each parent)

autosomal abnormalities: problems with the 21st chromosome

sex chromosome abnormalities: problems with the X or Y chromosomes

failure to separate (mutation): Non-disjunction of chromosomes during meiosis

translocation: a portion breaks off & attaches to a different chromosome

nuclear family: Mother, father, child(ren).

extended family: Nuclear plus other relatives of one or both spouses (live with family or not); 3 or more generations

single parent family (death/divorce): increasingly common; one person responsible for performance of many roles.

single person fam:single/widow/separated: Increasing in number; faces pressures from couple-oriented society.

stepparent (remarriage) family: One in three children under age 18. Majority of all marriages end in divorce, increasing with number of times married; challenge to create a new single family from existing families.

step generation family: Grandparents become the parenting people; little support for this type of family; age of grandparents may present issues if health problems.

homosexual family: Increasing in visibility; faces challenge of legal recognition and social acceptance

role: a prescribed behavior in a situation

performance roles: breadwinner, homemaker, handyman/handywoman, the expert, political advisor, chauffeur, gardener

emotional roles: leader, nurturer, sustainer, protector, healer, arbitrator, scapegoat, jester, rebel, dependent,

family functions: -physical -affectional -social -spiritual

physical fam function: providing food, clothing, shelter, protection against danger, provision for bodily repairs after fatigue or illness, and reproduction.

affectional fam function: meeting emotional needs and promoting adaptation and adjustment.

social fam function: Providing social togetherness, self-esteem, personal identity as tied to the family; providing opportunities for learning social and sexual roles, accepting responsibility for behavior and supporting individual creativity and individuality.

spiritual fam function: Raising the child to be a moral person with a belief system of some nature.

Stages of Family Development: -Establishment -Expectant -Parenthood -Disengagement or Contraction

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