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fluorescence: occurs when certain atoms or molecules absorb light at a particular wavelength and, after a very brief time interval, emit light at longer wavelengths. The light that is absorbed is typically UV light (high frequency/ smaller wavelength), whereas the emi

nucleon: One of the subatomic particles of the atomic nucleus (a proton or a neutron).

Newton's second law: Newton's observation that the rate of change of the momentum of a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force acting on it. F = ma

Newton's third law: Newton's observation that to every action (force applied) there is an equal but opposite reaction (equal force applied in the opposite direction)

momentum: (of a body in motion) the product of its mass and velocity.

torque: A rotational or twisting effect of a force; a moment of force. It is measured as an equivalent straight line force multiplied by the distance from the axis of rotation --> so it's a vector quantity with SI units of newton · meter (N · m)

half-life: The time required for half of the nuclei in a sample of a specific isotope to undergo radioactive decay; The length of time necessary for one half of a given amount of a substance to decay.

rotational equilibrium: when the sum of torques or rotational forces about any point is equal to zero

equilibrium: the condition in which the sum of all forces acting on an object is equal to zero and the object is balanced

acceleration: Forces cause _____ of an object in the direction of the force

positive: torque is ___ if the force causes a counterclockwise rotation

negative: torque is ____ if the force causes a clockwise rotation

lever arm: τ = Fr sinθ; θ = the angle between the direction of the force and the direction of the ____

translational motion: the motion of an object caused by forces exerted in the direction of motion

power: the rate at which work is done by a force

watt: SI unit for power

impulse: The change in momentum (I); is related to the impact force acting to speed up or slow down the object multiplied by the time interval during which this force acts.

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