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Ventilation: The mechanism which moves air in and out of the lungs, allowing gas exchange. It requires a difference in air pressure - air moves from a place where the pressure is high to one where it is low.

Lungs: Essential ventilation organs enclosed in the thorax. Their essential function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere.

Alveoli: Tiny air sac structures located in the lungs, which look like bunches of grapes surrounded by a capillary network, responsible for the absorption of oxygen into the blood and the removal of carbon dioxide from it.

Inhalation: One of the movements which bring about ventilation: -The outer intercostal muscles contract, pulling the ribs up; the diaphragm contracts into a flattened shape; the volume of the chest increases causing a slight pressure drop in the thorax, causing the a

Exhalation: One of the movements which bring about ventilation:-The external intercostal muscles relax, pulling the ribs down and in, the diaphragm relaxes and it goes back to its normal dome shape, the volume of the thorax decreases, and the difference in pressure f

Intercostal Muscles: Sets of muscles joining each rib to the next.

Bronchial Tree: Highly branching network of air passages in the lungs.

Trachea: A thin-walled, cartilaginous tube connecting the larynx to the bronchi; the windpipe.

Bronchi: Two passages in the respiratory tract located after the trachea that conduct air into the lungs.

Bronchiole: Any of the small branches of a bronchus, which eventually end at the alveoli.

Pleural Membranes: Thin moist membranes that separate the inside of the thorax from the lungs.

Pleural Fluid: It acts as a lubricant inside the pleural cavity stopping the surfaces of the lungs from sticking to the inside of the chest wall when we breathe.

Cilia: Tiny hair like structures that cover the cells in the lining of the trachea and sweep the mucus and particles towards the mouth, preventing dirt and bacteria from entering the lungs.

Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchi of the lungs, that causes the cilia of the bronchial epithelial cells to stop functioning and is one of the possible effects of smoking.

Emphysema: An abnormal accumulation of air in tissues , especially the lungs. Chronic lung disease, characterised by an abnormal increase in the size of the air spaces, resulting in laboured breathing and caused by exposure to toxic chemicals such as tobacco smoke.

Nicotine: An alkaloid (C10H14N2), commonly occurring in the tobacco plant. In small doses it is a habit-forming stimulant, in larger doses it is toxic and is often used in insecticides. It is possibly a carcinogen, though this has not been evaluated and it has not

Carbon Monoxide: A colourless, odourless, flammable, highly toxic gas, part of cigarette smoke. When breathed, it enters the bloodstream and interferes with the ability of the blood to carry oxygen by combining with haemoglobin, and is a major cause for heart disease.

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