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Eukaryotic Chromosomes
• Packages of very tightly coiled DNA, which is wrapped around histones. • Made of DNA and proteins.
A sequence of DNA base pairs which codes for a specific protein/feature. Contains only exons.
One specific form of a gene, differing from other ones of it by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene
The whole of genetic information of an organism, expressed in the order of the nucleotides on all the organism's chromosomes.
genetic mutation
A small, localized change in the structure of a DNA strand, often involving a single base pair being changed.
• A reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei • Cell division in gametes
homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes that have the same genes as each other, in the same sequence but do not necessarily have the same allele of those genes
Possessing the correct haploid number of chromosomes for the organism (23 in humans)
Incorrect/unequal division of chromosomes into gametes
The picture of an organism's chromosomes used to identify non-disjunction
The alleles/genes of an organism, inherited from it's parents.
The "seen" characteristics of an organism. Based on it's genotype.
An allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state. Able to be covered up by a dominant trait.
An allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state. Always displayed over recessive traits.
A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other
The physical location of a gene on an organism's chromosomes.
Having two identical alleles of a gene
Having two different alleles of a gene
An organism that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele. A person who possesses (but does not display) a genetic disease that can be passed down to his/her/zir offspring.
test cross
A test to determine the genotype of an organism with unknown ancestry that displays a certain trait. In the test, the tested organism is bred with a homozygous recessive organism.
sex linkage
When the gene controlling the characteristic is located on the sex chromosome and therefore associated with gender
A genetically identical copy of an organism