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Eukaryotic Chromosomes: • Packages of very tightly coiled DNA, which is wrapped around histones. • Made of DNA and proteins.

Gene: A sequence of DNA base pairs which codes for a specific protein/feature. Contains only exons.

Allele: One specific form of a gene, differing from other ones of it by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene

Genome: The whole of genetic information of an organism, expressed in the order of the nucleotides on all the organism's chromosomes.

genetic mutation: A small, localized change in the structure of a DNA strand, often involving a single base pair being changed.

meiosis: • A reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei • Cell division in gametes

homologous chromosomes: Chromosomes that have the same genes as each other, in the same sequence but do not necessarily have the same allele of those genes

euploid: Possessing the correct haploid number of chromosomes for the organism (23 in humans)

Aneuploidy: Incorrect/unequal division of chromosomes into gametes

karyotype: The picture of an organism's chromosomes used to identify non-disjunction

genotype: The alleles/genes of an organism, inherited from it's parents.

phenotype: The "seen" characteristics of an organism. Based on it's genotype.

Recessive: An allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state. Able to be covered up by a dominant trait.

Dominant: An allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state. Always displayed over recessive traits.

Codominance: A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other

Locus: The physical location of a gene on an organism's chromosomes.

Homozygous: Having two identical alleles of a gene

Heterozygous: Having two different alleles of a gene

Carrier: An organism that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele. A person who possesses (but does not display) a genetic disease that can be passed down to his/her/zir offspring.

test cross: A test to determine the genotype of an organism with unknown ancestry that displays a certain trait. In the test, the tested organism is bred with a homozygous recessive organism.

sex linkage: When the gene controlling the characteristic is located on the sex chromosome and therefore associated with gender

clone: A genetically identical copy of an organism

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