All terms in this list:
Eukaryotic Chromosomes: • Packages of very tightly coiled DNA, which is wrapped around histones. • Made of DNA and proteins.
Gene: A sequence of DNA base pairs which codes for a specific protein/feature. Contains only exons.
Allele: One specific form of a gene, differing from other ones of it by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene
Genome: The whole of genetic information of an organism, expressed in the order of the nucleotides on all the organism's chromosomes.
genetic mutation: A small, localized change in the structure of a DNA strand, often involving a single base pair being changed.
meiosis: • A reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei • Cell division in gametes
homologous chromosomes: Chromosomes that have the same genes as each other, in the same sequence but do not necessarily have the same allele of those genes
euploid: Possessing the correct haploid number of chromosomes for the organism (23 in humans)
Aneuploidy: Incorrect/unequal division of chromosomes into gametes
karyotype: The picture of an organism's chromosomes used to identify non-disjunction
genotype: The alleles/genes of an organism, inherited from it's parents.
phenotype: The "seen" characteristics of an organism. Based on it's genotype.
Recessive: An allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state. Able to be covered up by a dominant trait.
Dominant: An allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state. Always displayed over recessive traits.
Codominance: A condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other
Locus: The physical location of a gene on an organism's chromosomes.
Homozygous: Having two identical alleles of a gene
Heterozygous: Having two different alleles of a gene
Carrier: An organism that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele. A person who possesses (but does not display) a genetic disease that can be passed down to his/her/zir offspring.
test cross: A test to determine the genotype of an organism with unknown ancestry that displays a certain trait. In the test, the tested organism is bred with a homozygous recessive organism.
sex linkage: When the gene controlling the characteristic is located on the sex chromosome and therefore associated with gender
clone: A genetically identical copy of an organism